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Ayatollah (Persian: آيت‌الله āyatollāh from Arabic: آية الله‎, āyatu l-Lāh "Sign of God") is a high ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries.[citation needed] The next lower clerical rank is Hojatoleslam wal-muslemin. Ayatollah is simillar in rank to a Bishop or Cardinal in Christianity, and Chief Rabbi in Judaism.